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Updated: Jan 5, 2020

Do you like writing?

Do you like winning?

Do you like writing and winning?

If you answered "yes" to the previous questions, then there is a competition that you would love!

The American Psychological Association (or APA for short) has an organization called the APA Teachers of Psychology in Secondary Schools (or TOPSS for short). This organization is running its annual essay competition, and this year's topic is... racial bias.

Despite the reforms for change, we still live in a world with racial bias in various sections of society, especially in the criminal justice system. While racist behavior may be carried out consciously, psychologists now understand that it may also occur when we are unaware. Whether you mean it or not, the consequences of racial bias may still be severe and damaging.

You will be asked to explore all sorts of questions, including:

"What evidence is there that racial bias exists in modern society?"

"What are the impacts of this problem on society?"

FOUR lucky winners are selected, and each winner will receive $250!

The deadline is March 15, 2016, so hurry before it's too late!

For more information about the competition, visit the website.

  • Abby Flyer

Updated: Jan 5, 2020

Michelle, a secretary for a huge law firm, gets into a huge fight with her boss, Tom. She’s angry, so she begins to raise her voice. In an instant, he’s screaming back at her. Tom starts insulting her, and eventually she gets so nervous that she spills her cup of coffee on herself. Humiliated, Michelle takes the rest of the day off, unsure of how to handle the issue.

Famous psychologist Sigmund Freud identified the ego as the part of the mind responsible for balancing selfish wants with selfless morality. Not only is the ego the brain’s referee, but it also serves as a bodyguard for the sensitive parts of the mind. Freud believed that when a person experiences trauma, ego defense mechanisms kick into gear to prevent the person from acting in socially unacceptable ways.

One course of action that Michelle’s ego can take is removing the pressing memory of the event from her conscious memory. This is called repression, and it goes further than simply refusing to talk about an issue. Repression would prevent Michelle from acting on her feelings of anger by locking the memory away to a place where she would be unable to access it without therapy.

The humiliation of the fight at work may cause Michelle’s ego to seek to return her mind to a simpler, less traumatic state. Regression causes the mind to go back to childhood, so Michelle may feel the urge to call her mother to whine about her problems or curl up into the fetal position and cry.

Michelle’s ego may alternatively cause her to act in a way that is on the polar opposite of her original feelings of anger and humiliation. This is called reaction formation, and such a response may lead Michelle to act very friendly towards her boss the next day. Forming the opposite reaction towards Tom and being overly kind to her rude boss could help stop Michelle from being aggressive towards him, the latter of which could get her fired.

Another route Michelle’s handy dandy little mental bodyguard could take is projection. Because it’s not likely for Michelle to keep her job if she openly hates her boss, she may begin to believe that everyone else in the office hates Tom, too— even if they all like him perfectly well.

While Michelle cannot act on her feelings of rage against her boss, there are other people in her life over whom she does have power. Her ego may use displacement and cause Michelle to express her feelings of rage in other parts of her life. She may get into unnecessary fights with her best friend or scream at her boyfriend to get out her anger.

Michelle may also try to rationalize the anger she feels from her traumatic experience by looking for small reasons to justify her rage. It’s dangerous for her to accept that she still feels angry about the humiliating incident weeks after its occurrence, but she may feel less crazy if her fury is directed at the fact that Tom always takes too long making his coffee or the recurring number of times that he accidentally knocks pencils off of her desk as he passes by.

All of the above options may make Michelle feel a little better, but they’d ultimately make things even worse for her. Feeling like a child or getting into a fight with her best friend won’t help Michelle get over her humiliating experience. So instead, her ego decides to do her a favor and deal with her bubbling emotions through sublimation. Sublimation, like displacement, involves taking the unacceptable feelings and putting them somewhere else, but unlike displacement, sublimation turns bad impulses into something socially sublime and beneficial.

Michelle sits down with a pen and paper and writes down all of her feelings, and when she eventually invites Tom to see her perform her piece at a Slam Poetry night, she smiles at him, able to move on.

  • Amy Shteyman

Updated: Jan 5, 2020

Imagine a black apple with a large bite taken out of it. Does this image remind you of anything else? I don't know about you, but most people would immediately think of the world-famous Apple logo. You know, that small icon that's found on iPads, iPhones, and personal computers of the Apple brand, and kinda looks like this:

Nowadays, most people would not think about an actual edible apple that someone took a bite out of. Why? Well, this is because of priming. When we sense certain things in our environment, they can activate associated concepts in our memory. These concepts can stay activated for a period of time and influence our emotions and behavior... and we often don't even notice. In this case, I told you think about a black apple, but you probably unknowingly thought of the Apple logo instead.

In the past, scientists have studied the length of time between a person's first exposure to a stimulus in his or her environment and when priming actually occurs in the brain; however, how long does priming last in the brain after exposure? Five minutes? Ten?

I was curious to find out.

For my study, I used semantic priming.

This particular type of priming involves priming people with words. For instance, go find a friend and ask him or her, "Who works in a hospital?" Your friend would probably say, "Doctor." Now, ask your friend to fill in the missing letter to complete the word, "__URSE." Although words such as "curse" and "purse" are eligible candidates, your friend would most likely think of the word "nurse" because nurses are associated with doctors!

Semantic priming can be uncovered everywhere because of its powerful effects on the unconscious mind. Literature, advertisements— you name it. Additionally, semantic priming is an easy way to test priming because subjects can simply read a short passage and answer questions to determine the extent of the effects of priming on their brains.

My study looked at whether priming lasts for ten minutes after an initial exposure to a stimulus, 24 hours after an initial stimulus, or neither. Subjects were given a reading either about a house or a mouse and then asked to fill in the missing letter to complete the word, "__OUSE." This word test was given to the subjects either ten minutes after an initial stimulus or 24 hours after an initial stimulus.

What do you think happened?

Well, the results were shocking. After analyzing my data, I found that priming lasts for at least 10 minutes but not after 24 hours. But what does this mean?

The implications of this data are far-reaching. This means that successful marketingbrands such as Nike can influence people for almost ten minutes simply by flashing their checkmark logo. People are constantly exposed to this message subconsciously, so they may be more willing to go buy Nike apparel. Priming may also be used in propaganda because when people are exposed to certain messages, the memories will stay activated for at least ten minutes. That's a long time.

Overall, there are many ways in which priming can be used. Ten minutes is a long period of time for priming to occur in humans, and the ways in which priming can influence us are scary!

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